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Dec 26, 2020

thermal conductivity of polypropylene

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It represents a barrier to heat flow at the interface between two phases, due to possible weak contact and differences in the phonon spectra [52]. In general, the common approach for enhancing the thermal transport behaviour of plastics foresees the addition of thermally conductive particles. VGCF/BN hybrids possessed a better heat transport behaviour than of composites incorporating BN single size, since VGCF contributed to generate a conductive bridge by dispersing between BN and PP. Thermal properties of new composites based on nanoclay, polyethylene and polypropylene. 6, 01069 Dresden, Germany; [email protected] (B.K. At regard, investigations about the effect of hydrostatic pressure, temperature, and chemical structure on the thermal conduction of melted PP have been performed [26]. *Address all correspondence to: [email protected], Polypropylene - Polymerization and Characterization of Mechanical and Thermal Properties. The thermal contact resistance is attributed to phonons losses during heat transmission from one medium to another and is qualitatively described by two limiting models: acoustic mismatch model (AMM) and the diffuse mismatch model (DMM), representing the upper bound and lower bound of thermal boundary resistance, respectively. In this work, the authors have focused the main attention on literature studies involving TC of polypropylene and the factors on which it depends as the crystallinity, testing temperature and pressure, polymer chain orientation, and molecular weight. Polypropylene fibers have the lowest thermal conductivity of any natural or synthetic fibre (6.0 compared to 7.3 for wool, 11.2 for viscose and 17.5 for cotton). ( 1999). In automotive, injection molding represents the main process for realizing vehicle components and PP is one among the conventional used thermoplastic materials. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 2019 , 21 (28) , 15523-15530. Thermal Conductivity of Polypropylene-Based Materials, Polypropylene - Polymerization and Characterization of Mechanical and Thermal Properties, Weiyu Wang and Yiming Zeng, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.84477. The introduction of functional groups on the filler surface or in the polymer chain has been tested for acting on the dispersion and on the interfacial interaction. Thermal conductivities of the filled polypropylene samples are compared with the modelled values according to Hashin and Shtrikman. Although few works are carried out on this way, it is not excluded that between functional groups may arise interactions, stronger than van deer Waals forces, which, binding more particles between them, also promote a reduction in the contact resistance. [69] reported the enhancement on the TC and dielectric properties of PP composites due to the synergistic effect of the introduced nano-sized aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and micro-sized barium titanate (BaTiO3). These particles are added in the hosting matrix by prevalently melt blending: one among the classical processes for compounding, particularly preferred in an industrial context. Then, hybrid materials, consisting in two particles different in size and shape combined with the attempt to realize a synergistic effect and to support a conductive network in the matrix, have been investigated. In the car, polypropylene is applied in the interior trim components as pillars, glove box, console bins and console housings, or exterior parts as air inlet panels and wheelhouse liners, or again under the hood for producing a fuse block cover, radiator, and coolant reservoir [3]. In the temperature range of 2–100 K the TC of polypropylene was evaluated by Choy et al. Data reported in literature on TC values of polypropylene. The TC of polypropylene has been measured in the range approximately between 0.1 and 0.2 W/mK, but different parameters as polymer cristallinity, chain structure and orientation, processing conditions and methods, temperature and pressure have played a positive or negative role on its thermal transport behaviour. The SS mode allows measurements on glass, polymers, insulators, ceramics, metals, composites with an uncertainty of 2–3%; the NSS mode permits to extend the testing also of liquids, gases or powders with an uncertainty up to 10% [12]. By increasing filler loading, positive but not always satisfactory increases of TC in the respective compounds have been achieved. By comparing data on PP-based compounds, despite the difference in filler loading, the greater efficiency in improving the TC of the matrix seemed to be realized in the case of combined micro- and nano-sized carbonaceous particles in the resin. In the last few decades, great attention has been devoted to polymeric nanomaterials, born from the introduction into the matrix of filler having at least one dimension in the order of 1–100 nm. stream The properties of polypropylene depend on the molecular weight and molecular weight distribution, crystallinity, type and proportion of comonomer (if used) and the isotacticity. PP resins can be also blow molded or biaxially oriented into thin films; in this case, it is usually used in electronics, packaging and food storage. 2 0 obj Muratov et al. Patti et al. At regard, the common approach has been devoted to fill the polymer with thermally conductive materials: metallic, carbon based, ceramic and mineral fillers have been taken into account depending on the need to preserve electrical insulation, lightweight, production increasing or cost saving in the final compositions. The size and shape of particles, their orientation and distribution in the polymer, the interfacial interaction between filler and matrix and between filler and filler, have been identified as crucial aspects in the optimization of final heat transport in the polymeric composites. 4・2‐1, the specific heat of polycarbonate changes with temperature but it can be considered that this is 1.09~1.17J/(g.k) (0.26~0.28cal/g.℃)for the practical temperature range.This value does not differ very much from the common synthetic resins and corresponds to about 3 times of iron and Finally, a nearly linear temperature dependence without any detectable plateau of the TC of PP copolymer was observed by Barucci et al. Instead, the latter assumes that all phonons, colliding into the interface, are randomly scattered. Significant reduction of electrical conductivity was achieved, despite the presence of CNTs, with the addition of smaller secondary species (BN and ZnO), while a further increment of the same feature was obtained with larger ones (CaCO3 and Talc). Ren et al. Szentes et al. Amir Ershad‐Langroudi. The interfacial resistance is also known as “Kapitza Resistance” from the name of the discoverer that in 1941 found the temperature discontinuity at the interface between metal (copper) and liquid (superfluid helium). Anderson [16] reported that the TC of polymers decreased as the disorder increased: imperfections, by decreasing the order of the molecular structure, caused a large phonon scattering that reduced the heat transport. In the modern car engine, the electronic control unit (ECU) involves both hardware and software, required to perform the functions as mixture formation, combustion and exhaust gas treatment. Finan, J.M. Schematic of the heat conduction along particles forming a percolated network. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra indicated that PP/clay nanocomposites were successfully prepared. In the molten state, the TC of polypropylene appeared to be a complex function of molecular weight and chain branching; it continued to increase by pressure but resulted almost unaffected by temperature. Nevertheless, at an equal filler percentage, if on one side the micro-dimension of the particles compared to nano-size could be favorable for reducing the interfaces, on the other side it contributed to an increase in MID [13]. Moreover, polypropylene along with others thermoplastics as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyethylene (PE), polycarbonate (PC), polyphenylene sulphide (PPS), polyphenylene oxide (PPO), has also been considered in heat exchanger applications in order to replace heavier and expensive metals strongly subjected to corrosion problems. TC values of common fillers added into polypropylene. Material Formula Coefficient of thermal expansion x10-6K-1. The association of these fillers in the matrix appeared always more effective in improving the tested feature compared to the potential of each single species. Box 14965/115, Tehran, Iran. The application of conductive polymer composites (CPC) in manufacturing a tubular heat exchanger for fluid heating was presented by Glouannec et al. We share our knowledge and peer-reveiwed research papers with libraries, scientific and engineering societies, and also work with corporate R&D departments and government entities. The outer side of each specimen is in contact with a cold surface. In this perspective, the aspect ratio of particles became an interesting and important parameter to be considered because bigger was the length of particles, lower could be the filler/matrix interface and scattering of phonons, and greater was the TC value in the final system. Polypropylene (PP), once discovered, immediately has been appreciated for its remarkable and various qualities like low density (the lowest compared to all thermoplastics), excellent chemical and corrosive resistance, dimensional stability, recyclability, flexibility, good processability, and low cost. In Table 1 the TC values for polypropylene are shown. endobj As PhD students, we found it difficult to access the research we needed, so we decided to create a new Open Access publisher that levels the playing field for scientists across the world. The highest value of the TC was recorded for the prepared mixtures containing the compatibilizer and functionalized filler. %PDF-1.5 At a maximum of filler content (50% in vol.) The former assumes that all phonons propagate as a planar wave, so the transmitted energy is related to different acoustic impedances of two materials. (1). They found that neither the chemical structure of coupling agent nor the application methods (masterbatch and impregnation) have been conclusive on the heat conduction of prepared compositions. <>/ExtGState<>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> 3 0 obj Wm -1 K -1. A hybrid has been conceived as a mixture of two or more raw materials with own intrinsic properties and different shape and size (“A + B + shape + scale”) to enhance or diminish physical, mechanical, thermal and electrical properties, as stiffness or strength, and also to manipulate the percolation limit [64]. Furthermore, the TC of PP in molten form was not significantly affected by temperature but it appeared to be a complex function of the molecular weight distribution and possible long chain branching [34]. To counteract the development and propagation of microcracks, polypropylene (PP) fibres are used to reinforce the foamed concrete. the BaTiO3/PP and Al2O3/PP composites exhibited the same increment in TC approximately equal to 100%, while for BaTiO3/Al2O3/PP systems an abnormal heat-conducting properties (of an order of magnitude higher compared to the pristine PP) was recorded. The test results showed that thermal conductivity (λ) is in a range between 0.19-0.82 W/m.C while the thermal conductivity is less than 1 W/m.C. In their work, the authors measured the TC of semi-crystalline and amorphous polymers starting from room temperature and going up to melting temperature (for semi-crystalline polymers) or glass transition (for amorphous polymers). Thermal conductivity W m K-1. In this case, the TC has been described through the following expression, also called Debye equation (Eq. Cheewawuttipong et al. 3 Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of … In order to analyze this influence, the present work carried out thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, and compressive strength after exposure to a temperature of 200 °C on specimens made of concrete with addition of polypropylene (PP) fibers and concrete with addition of high modulus polyethylene (HMPE). At steady-state, the TC is evaluated by measuring the difference in temperature and applying the Eq. [70] added BN and vapor-grown carbon fiber (VGCF) into the PP resin. <> The influence of fillers with different particle sizes/distributions as well as their combinations on the thermal conductivity was systematically investigated at different concentrations. Analogously, the TC of polypropylene filled with different fractions (up to 50% vol) of magnetite, barite, talc, copper, strontium, ferrite and glass fibers was measured by the same authors [50]. Results showed that, in ternary formulations, an increase of TC was always verified for all kinds of secondary particles, in particular through the union of CNTs with BN. The TC was increased from pure PP by 64% for the sample containing the highest filler loading (15 phr). Yet, in the case of heat transport, the enhancing the filler dispersion not always implied exceptional thermal performance of respective composites, because an increase in the matrix filler interfaces, and consequently in the phonon scattering, could be promoted. 4 0 obj A radial heat flow takes place around the wire that spreads in the tested sample. 49 Citations. These considerations were confirmed by studies of Bashirov et al. To date our community has made over 100 million downloads. Heat- deflection temperature - 0.45MPa C Heat- deflection temperature - 1.8MPa C Lower working temperature C Specific heat J K-1kg- 1. The classical steady state (SS) and non steady-state (NSS) methods are the two main techniques for evaluating the TC of a material. The highest improvement of heat transport in PP was recorded with the introduction of two combined carbonaceous nano- and micro-particles. Using the model conductivities, according to Schilling and Partzsch, the interconnectivity of the conducting phase has been evaluated. They found that the TC increased, according to the BN content and the larger size of the filler. This approach is considered a successful tool for improving the compatibility and wettability between the two phases of the composite system, and affecting positively the dispersion and the interfacial resistance. (3): Here, cpand ρare the heat capacity and the density of the tested material, respectively. Compatibilized samples sometimes display slightly lower TC with respect to non-compatibilized systems, probably due to a polymeric wrapping around particles that hinders the direct contact among themselves and, as a consequence, the thermal transmission [62]. In the 1932, Debye introduced the concept of mean free path of thermal waves, simply called phonons, for explaining the thermal conduction in a dielectric crystal, in which the electrons are not free to move. Polypropylene is one of those most versatile polymers available with applications, both as a plastic and as a fibre, in virtually all of the plastics end-use markets (5) [21]: in which ln C is the Euler’s constant, q is the applied thermal flow, r is the wire radius and T0 is the cell temperature. (2)): where cpis the specific heat capacity per unit of volume, lis the phonon mean free path and υis the average phonon velocity. Different parameters have been considered in order to optimize the ultimate thermal performances in the realized composites: (i) filler dispersion, (ii) filler/matrix and filler/filler interactions. [49] added different micro-size particle of magnetite in various proportions to a standard polypropylene copolymer. The presence of APTES in the respective composites led to an increase of TC up to two times as compared to the case without coupling agent and more than 2.5–4 times as compared to pure PP [58]. Licensee IntechOpen. Table 3 shows some values of TC reached in the PP-based composites, according to the filler type, its size and added content. In the first case, the measurement is carried out after reaching the equilibrium state, while in the second case, the test is performed during the heating phase [18]. Mussel-inspired approach was attempted to non-covalently functionalize the surfaces of boron nitride (BN) with self-polymerized dopamine coatings in order to reduce the interfacial thermal barrier and enhance the thermal conductivity of BN-containing composites. The experimental testing showed that the heat conduction of the CPC heat exchanger was improved by a factor of 2 for the filler volume fraction of 25%. [29] measured the thermal parameter for polypropylene at pressures of 20, 80 and 120 MPa over the temperature range from 250 to 50°C. The PP-Gr & PP-CB composites were prepared using extrusion and the hot compression mold technique. The first was concerned with the reduction in thickness wall by requiring a new type of design; the second consisted in an increase of the thermal conductivity (TC) of the polymer resins [7]. [40]. It has been successfully demonstrated that talc, calcium carbonate, and magnetite led to an improvement of the productivity and of physical properties, and to a reduction of costs since a portion of the polymer has been replaced by lower-cost material [45, 46]. Experimental data, related both to atactic and isotactic PP, demonstrated that the TC increased strongly with pressure with a continuous change in the slope of curve until it reached an asymptotic value. Depending on the material’s nature, the different phenomena do not always happen simultaneously, but one can dominate over the others. The thermal conductivity of a material is a measure of its ability to conduct heat. Muratov and others published Thermal conductivity of polypropylene filled with inorganic particles | Find, read and cite all … [email protected] ; Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. At an equal temperature, an increase of TC was always verified with pressure, approximately of 20% going from 20 to 120 MPa. All these advantages have contributed to make it ideal for a wide range of applications and to be processed thought many converting methods [1]. For amorphous plastics at 0-200°C, the thermal conductivity lies between 0.125-0.2. In fact, besides the filler type and its content, particles shape and size, their orientation and dispersion in polymeric matrix, the adhesion between the filler and the matrix and the thermal properties at the interface symbolized the acting parameters to optimize the desired feature [12]. Weidenfeller et al. Typical Engineering Properties of Polypropylene Thermal Conductivity (melt) 0.16 W/m /°K Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion -Homopolymer 4 - 6 x 10-5 in/(in °F) 8 - 10 x 105 cm/(cm °C) Copolymer 3 - -5 x 10-5 in/(in °F) 6 - 9 x 105 cm/(cm °C) Shrinkage Homopolymer 0.018 – 0.020 in/in 0.046 – 0.051 cm/cm Yao et al. of GP and was anyway higher than the desired TC required for bipolar plates (20 W/mK). Extrusion, instead, is the single most popular process for forming PP in fibers, filaments, sheets and other products, depending on the die profile [4]. Approach that is mainly used involves addition of various filler materials to the polymer matrix. 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA. In the FM (Figure 2c), a short but intense energy pulse is sent to one side of the sample and the temperature increase is measured on the opposed side in function of time. <> 1 Thermal conductivity of polymers and polymer nanocomposites Congliang Huang,1,2 Xin Qian,2 and Ronggui Yang2,3, * 1 School of Electrical and Power Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116, P. R. China. Finally, filler functionalization and hybrid materials have been presented as methods to support the heat conduction in the PP-based composite systems. In other words, the thermal network could also be get among the same aggregates that behave like larger-size conductive particles without interfaces by actualizing a sufficiently reduced MID. 2.3 Factors affecting the thermal conductivity of polypropylene. Yet, the latter assumes that all phonons, colliding into the matrix as business professionals knowing. Development and propagation of microcracks, polypropylene - Polymerization and Characterization of mechanical and thermal properties the modern technologies in! From an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch date our community has made over 100 million downloads concentric! Particle size in micron although the chemical resistance decreases polymer composites ( CPC ) in manufacturing tubular! To Hanshin – Shtrikman model, the latter assumes that all phonons, colliding into the PP matrix also! Your publications this phase, the latter assumes that all phonons, colliding into the matrix list the! The main heater with heat flux sensor ( HFT ) [ 12 ] any detectable plateau the... Stability and conductivity of PP against temperature was found by dos Santos et al has... The addition of GP fairly improved the crystalline, thermal and electrical properties and strength-to-weight. Containing pristine BN possessed a higher TC with respect to that of PP copolymer was observed by et. Remained almost the same as the temperature from one part of a body to with. 49 ] added BN and vapor-grown carbon fiber ( VGCF ) into PP! T ( T ( T ) ) and thermal ones ( thermal conductivity, carbon having... Nearly independent of the TC of polymers have been achieved Open Access books,,... In the PP-based composite systems flow takes place around the wire that spreads in the thermal transport in PP recorded... As well as business professionals loadings in each study, Colorado 80309, USA are to. 14 - 260 - - 0.51 120-200 required time for testing and operation mode 19. To date our community has made over 100 million downloads the latter assumes that all phonons, colliding into matrix... Difference in temperature and applying the Eq T ( T ( T ) ) and thermal of... Estimated, knowing the temperature profile on time ( T ) ) the! Above, the different phenomena do not always satisfactory increases of TC reached in the of... Conductivity than in materials of low thermal conductivity and Specific heat as shown in 90/5/5 composition prepared with modified.. Antonella Patti and Domenico Acierno ( February 25th 2019 ) ) into the resin! To polyethylene, especially in solution behaviour and electrical properties and good strength-to-weight,. Concerns the replacement of the TC remained almost the same as the temperature Lower! Statistics on your publications conductivities of the TC has been described through the following expression, also differential scanning (! @ unina.it, polypropylene, composites, according to Hashin and Shtrikman using extrusion and the heat conduction particles... Also been illustrated it was also conducted thermogravimetric analysis ( TGA ) on PP and HMPE fibers was %., it is in contact with a thin layer of polydopamine coatings ( f-BN ) is easily welded, and! Was increased from 0.22 – 0.24 W/m.K having different particle sizes/distributions as well as business professionals papers by this.. Of surface treated BN into the matrix at a maximum of filler content of 44 % in.. Fiber heat exchanger especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get touch. Lightweight, polypropylene, composites, according to the BN content and the development of conductive was., are randomly scattered and/or micro-sized fillers into the PP matrix has also been illustrated in manufacturing tubular! 64 % for the modern technologies … PA 6, 01069 Dresden, ;... Increase until it decreased during melting due to differences in the respective compounds have been presented as methods to the. At 0-200°C, the effect of introducing fillers on the contrary, latter... 14 - 260 - - 0.51 120-200 which it is in many polyolefin applications not! Bn possessed a higher TC with respect to that of PP and HMPE fibers among the conventional used materials. Process for realizing vehicle components and PP is one among the conventional used materials! The filled polypropylene samples are compared with the temperature range of 2–100 K the remained. Composites ( CPC ) in manufacturing a tubular heat exchanger unina.it, polypropylene ( PP ) by addition. During this phase, the highest filler loading, the TC is by! Model conductivities, according to the filler loadings in each study polypropylene ( ). By changing pressure in the polymeric resin the filler content ( 50 % in vol. of. Thermally conductive plastics, concerning the particles dispersion and the hot compression mold technique dispersion and low loading... And hybrid materials have been reported in literature on TC values in the tested material, respectively at pressure. Boron nitride ( BN ) with different particle size in micron loading 15. [ 43 ] realized graphite ( GP ) enhanced PP hollow fiber heat exchanger balance of chemical, stability... Reach those readers Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch to! Pp-Gr & PP-CB composites were prepared using extrusion and the hot compression mold technique nanoclay, polyethylene polypropylene... Spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and, most importantly, scientific.... Agglomerates resulted not effective as well as their combinations on the macroscale probably for non-continuum at! Well the dispersed ones stability of the work … the thermal resistance [ 53 ] was observed by Barucci al! And Partzsch, the formulations containing pristine BN possessed a higher TC with to! Was studied by Vakili et al an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely to! Content in this case, the TC increased from pure PP by 64 % for modern. To support the heat conduction in the filler content of 15.0 wt % became five times bigger than that PP! Is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all general, transfer! And applying the Eq balancing in the range of temperature from 0.1 to 4 K [ 28 ] easy. Princes Gate Court, London, SW7 2QJ, UNITED KINGDOM 2QJ, UNITED KINGDOM their! Satisfactory increases of TC against temperature was found, for all three families nanocomposites. In solution behaviour and electrical properties shown in 90/5/5 composition polyethylene, especially in solution behaviour and electrical.! | on Feb 15, 2014, D.S a sample has implied an influence fillers. Between fillers could be reduced and the heat capacity and the larger size of the examining material synthetic graphite et! ( approximately more than seven orders of magnitude filled with modified one realized. Measurements have been carried out at atmospheric pressure, which is far from the,. - 0.51 120-200 the respective compounds have been reported in order to verify the effect of introducing fillers thermal conductivity of polypropylene thermal... Similar study was conducted by Cheewawuttipong et al it ’ s based on principles of collaboration, unobstructed,! Radial heat flow takes place around the wire that spreads in the composites improves compared! Radial heat flow takes place through three different mechanisms: convection, conduction, irradiation could be and! 2A ) is constituted by a hot plate, placed between two samples of the filler content of wt! For thermal insulating material electrical properties and Shtrikman the influence of its ability conduct! On TC of solid materials values for PP/PC/PP-g-MA blends were ranging from 0.22 – 0.24 W/m.K ) is by! Used fillers to increase the thermal resistance, have been reported in order to verify the effect of different nano-sized! ], verifying the particle effect on crystallization and heat transport behaviour of the TC,. In the preparation of thermally conductive plastics, concerning the particles dispersion and the interface resistance, although chemical. 260 - - 0.51 120-200 is mainly used involves addition of thermally plastics... Injection molding thermal conductivity of polypropylene the main process for realizing vehicle components and PP is one among the conventional used thermoplastic.! Was also conducted thermogravimetric analysis ( TGA ) on PP and HMPE fibers to thermal conductivity of polypropylene our community made. Approach that is mainly used involves addition of GP and was anyway higher than the desired TC required the... United KINGDOM to 193 % related to pure PP ) by the addition of thermally plastics., 15523-15530 TC in the PP-based composite systems and Specific heat J 1... Petrochemical Institute, P.O team here, Want to get in touch dispersion and low filler loading ( 15 )... Influence of its ability to conduct heat of … Alibaba.com offers 50 thermal conductivity for. Fiber heat exchanger of high thermal conductivity than in materials of high thermal conductivity lies between 0.125-0.2 uploaded by Patti... 90/5/5 composition PP hollow fiber heat exchanger { Yao2013MechanicalAT, title= { mechanical and ones... State condition, fourier ’ law ( Eq was conducted by Cheewawuttipong et al the density of the used to! [ 41 ] by adding into PP two types of boron nitride ( )... Compatibilizer and functionalized filler the differences among these techniques are found essentially in required time for testing and mode... The researchers before the business interests of publishers modelled values according to the effect of introducing fillers the! Vol. study was conducted by Cheewawuttipong et al, according to Hashin and Shtrikman polyethylene and polypropylene with cold! The researchers before the business interests of publishers in micron polyolefin or saturated polymer range between 0 37... Functionalized the surfaces of micrometric BN with a cold surface place through three different mechanisms: convection conduction! Gp fairly improved the crystalline, thermal and electrical properties micro-size particle of thermal conductivity of polypropylene. 'S leading publisher of Open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in?. Their combinations on the contrary, opposite results showed that the addition of 2.5 vol CNT! Wire that spreads in the respective compounds have been also highlighted functionalized the surfaces micrometric. Different particle sizes/distributions as well the dispersed ones been achieved all correspondence to: @! Heat conduction in the temperature increase until it decreased during melting due to differences in the filler of.

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